What Does It Mean When a Company Is Bought?
In order to reap the benefits of increased efficiency and protection from competitive pressures, a sole proprietorship or partnership may elect to incorporate.
The advantages of limited liability and increased capital can also be obtained by a lone proprietor or partnership by selling or converting their business to a corporation.
That is to say, a joint stock company is created to take over a sole proprietorship or a partnership.
For the time being, when we refer to a “acquisition,” we are referring to the bookkeeping processes associated with a corporation purchasing a firm from a non-corporate entity.
Companies can be formed out of sole proprietorships or partnerships, or partnerships can be sold to already established corporations. In any situation, the deal is considered an acquisition or purchase of the company.
The buying company is known as the purchaser or vendee (purchasing company), while the selling company is known as the vendor.
The purchase price of the business must be mutually agreed upon both the vendor firm (the firm selling the business) and the vendee.
The sum that the buying firm pays to the selling company in exchange for the selling company’s goods or services is called the purchase price or purchase consideration. A mutually agreeable price has been reached between the seller and buyer.
The purchasing corporation may pay the sum in cash, shares, or debentures.
Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Purchase
The purchase price may be paid all at once in certain circumstances. It is crucial to compare the lump money to the net tangible assets acquired in order to ascertain whether or not the price paid is less than the value of the business.
Methods for Figuring Out the Price of a Purchase
The net asset technique and the net payment method are the two most common approaches to determining the amount to be paid for a transaction.
A. The Net Asset Approach
The total worth of the assets assumed by the purchaser is subtracted from the total number of liabilities to arrive at the acquisition price for the company.
X Ltd. is an example of a company with $200,000 in physical assets and $45,000 in liabilities. The total amount of the company’s assets is $155,000, or $155,000 in net tangible assets.
The acquisition cost and the net asset value are usually the same. However, there are many scenarios in which the two numbers will differ.
Plan B: The Net Payment Plan
To calculate the purchase price using the net payment method, the buyer simply adds up all of the money it has already paid.
For illustration purposes, let’s say the buying firm pays the $30,000 in full by issuing 1,000 shares at $100 each, 200 debentures at $100 each, and $30,000 in cash. A total of $150,000 is being paid in this instance ($1,000,000 multiplied by $20,000 plus $30,000).
Profit or Savings Account
The acquisition’s net assets should be weighed against the purchase price. If the purchase price is more than the value of the assets actually bought, the difference must be written off as a loss of goodwill.
The price paid might not always equal the value of what was actually bought. As a result, the surplus (the capital profit) should be added to the reserve fund.
Goodwill and Capital Reserve Formulas
The adjusted asset and liability values must be factored into the calculation of net assets. Use book values if the amended values are not provided in the problem.
When a firm is sold, the buyer assumes responsibility for all of the seller’s obligations as well as any assets and cash on hand.
Liabilities refer to amounts owed to outside parties, while assets refer to actual, tangible items.
Additionally, a capital loss or gain is possible. You can’t make a profit (or lose money) on the same transaction that results in a loss (or vice versa).
What Happens to Your Books When You Buy a Company
For acquisitions, accountants can either (A) start fresh by opening a new set of books, or (B) keep using the old ones.